Individual differences in cognitive processes have long been of interest to psychologists and educators and are crucial for understanding and improving golf performance. Paivio (1971) proposed that we have one system for coding and processing verbal information and another for coding and processing nonverbal information. In his Dual Coding Theory (DCT), the structures and processes of verbal and imaginal systems are independent of each other. Both systems can be used to code information, but one code tends to be emphasised more than the other. Paivio (1971) thus developed an Individual Differences Questionnaire (IDQ) to assess tendencies or preferences for processing information either verbally or imaginally.