When interviewed in 1994 for Foreign Affairs, former Singaporean Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew claimed that China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Vietnam share the same Confucian cultural values that have defined their social and cultural identity. Lee identified five values that continue to shape the culture of these societies today: hierarchical collectivism (loyalty to group leaders), paternalistic meritocracy (benevolent rule by a moral elite), interpersonal reciprocity and accommodation (avoiding conflict with others), communal interest and harmony (sacrificing personal interest for the community), and familism (placing family above self) (Zakaria 1994).