Just three chapters compose this section, but they cover a wide kaleidoscope of Brazil’s wealth of cultural and linguistic diversity. Freire (Chapter 2) traces the impact of language policy in three school models prominent in three periods of history. They range from civilizing monolingualism (fast transition or submersion), through civilizing bilingualism (still transition) to reach the identity bilingualism of our times. The ideological shift that nurtures a new language policy moves away from traditional orientations of diversity as a threat to national unity towards an enrichment perspective, which regards identity bilingualism as a positive option to promote Indigenous languages and cultures.