This chapter examines the domestic contestation over national role conceptions (NRCs) in Australia after World War II. The discussion focuses on the time period between 1945 and the entering into force of the ANZUS treaty between Austra­ lia, New Zealand, and the United States in April 1952. Australia is a particularly interesting case since it had virtually no foreign policy to speak of prior to World War II. After the war, it decided to become a foreign policy actor in its own right, triggering domestic contestation processes over which specific NRC to pursue.