Scholars have debated the nature and role of the European Union (EU) in inter­ national affairs for over four decades. One of the most prominent role con­ ceptions in this debate has been that of civilian power Europe. The concept, coined by François Duchêne (1973), emphasizes the Union’s distinctive subjec­ tivity as based on civilian and primarily economic means, persuasion, and the ambition to exert a “civilizing” influence on international relations (Peterson and Lavenex 2012).