ABSTRACT

Advertising practitioners are undergoing pressure to be more accountable for advertising and to communicate its added value to top management as well as to shareholders (Marketing Science Institute, 2004). Determining the value created by digital advertising has become a growing focus, which demands that both practitioners and scholars translate advertising resource allocations into measurable effects. Practitioners and scholars, however, have not adequately demonstrated digital advertising’s impact on performance metrics that really matter to top management and shareholders, partly due to the lack of established effectiveness of measures (Marvin, 2013). Consequently, the perceived lack of accountability has threatened digital advertising’s credibility or even standing in the media mix (Ha, 2008). Nonetheless, digital advertising continues to play an important role in many firms’ advertising strategies.