It seems fair to say that translators have always been aware of the role that the environment plays in translation. Examples from history are freely available, for instance Nietzsche (2004), St Jerome (2004), and Schleiermacher (2004). In translation studies, all modern approaches would agree on the importance of the environment in translation. These would include linguistic (Nida 1964) and sociolinguistic approaches (Catford 2005) as well as approaches from the perspective of pragmatics (Munday 2012), culture (Bassnett and Lefevere 1990), ideology (Baker 2006) and sociology (Tyulenev 2011a, 2014; Wolf 2009, 2011, 2012). Since the cultural turn in the 1990s, it has become commonplace to consider translation and various aspects of culture together. Examples of these would be postcolonial translation studies (Spivak 2007; Trivedi 2007; Tymoczko 1999, 2010; Tymoczko and Gentzler 2002) and the feminist (Simon 1996) and queer (Harvey 2004) approaches to translation studies. Furthermore, translation studies have been interested in power, i.e. the power of translators (Venuti 1995), the power relations to which translators and interpreters are subjected (Fernandez-Ocampo and Wolf 2014; Wolf 2015; Wolf and Baer 2016) and the role of translation in power relations and conflict (Baker 2006, 2015). All of the above, to some degree, relate translation to the space and time in which it occurs.