ABSTRACT

During the last half of the twentieth century in most Western countries and not least in the Scandinavian countries, the general political administrative concept called the welfare state was developed. The overriding objective of the welfare state was to frame a society that could create security, reasonable living conditions and a high degree of equality for the members of society. However, since the 1990s, the political ideal has been to develop a competition state where the overriding objective is that the nation should manage as well as possible in international economic competition and inner structures are also largely based on competition between businesses and institutions and among citizens (Cerny 1997, 2010, Pedersen 2011, 2013).