Most jurisdictions have not yet implemented specific consenting processes for ocean energy (OE), and instead rely on a patchwork of existing instruments to consent various aspects of OE projects. The inefficient and ad hoc consenting frameworks that result have been consistently recognised as a major barrier to the progress of OE. Policymakers are, however, beginning to modernise regulatory frameworks in order to better facilitate and manage OE projects. In particular, some jurisdictions have started streamlining their regulatory frameworks, for example through the establishment of a one-stop shop (OSS) for consenting 1 and the development of targeted legislation and regulatory processes.