A central claim of theories of embodied cognition is that cognitive processes are rooted in the perceptions and actions of the body. In this chapter, we focus on three implications of this view for learning and instruction. First, action matters for cognitive performance and learning. Actions that are well aligned with target ideas can promote performance and learning, whereas actions that are not well aligned can interfere. Second, observing others’ actions can activate action-based knowledge; therefore, learners need not produce actions themselves in order for action to influence performance and learning. Third, imagining or mentally simulating actions can activate action-based knowledge, and simulated actions are sometimes manifested in gestures, which are a form of representational action. These principles highlight the importance of actions—both real and imagined—in cognitive performance, learning and instruction. We consider implications of this perspective for instructional design, assessment, and educational technology.