Apprenticeship learning contrasts with more traditional knowledge acquisition perspectives on schooling and implies fundamental differences in the design of learning environments and the structure and function of learning experiences. Apprenticeship learning research can be divided into strands that differ not only in their theoretical focus but also in their core methodological approaches. The first strand focuses on understanding apprenticeship learning in its original sense -- how people learn when apprenticeship learning is the educational approach (and how this differs from the schooling approach). Two perspectives within this research strand are described: Legitimate peripheral participation in communities of practice and guided participation as an approach to understanding children’s development. The second strand aims to transform traditional schooling by incorporating core features of apprenticeship learning. This strand is exemplified by the cognitive apprenticeship framework.