Collective Inquiry refers to a particular form of pedagogy where an entire classroom community is engaged collectively, with well-defined learning goals for both content and practice. This chapter reviews the overall construct of learning communities, including our own model called Knowledge Community and Inquiry. We review the challenges of enacting a learning community approach, and argue for the importance of scripting and orchestration to support collective inquiry. To illustrate, we describe a 12-week KCI curriculum where upper elementary students engaged in scientific experimentation and argumentation concerning a simulation embedded within their classroom environment. Our outcomes demonstrate the importance of aggregate representations of community knowledge, scaffolds for inquiry activities and engagement in scientific argumentation.