The past decade has seen tremendous growth in the instructional use of digital games in K-16 education. While most attention has focused on approaches of playing games for learning, making games for learning is now seen as an equally promising approach. In this chapter, we outline major directions on how gaming has been used for learning in both approaches and review findings from current meta-analyses and meta-syntheses that have examined motivational and academic learning outcomes of game playing and making inside and outside classrooms for students of different ages. In the discussion, we address possible overlaps between playing and making games for learning, present designs that connect playing and making games, review opportunities for online gaming, examine opportunities in the independent gaming movement, and consider opportunities for future research.