Example-based learning is a form of observational learning and can be defined as learning by following a demonstration of how to perform a to-be-learned task or skill. In this chapter we first explain what example-based learning is and why it is effective. We then review at which point in the learning process example-based learning is effective, for which learners, and for what types of tasks and skills. Finally we discuss how the design of examples (in particular video examples) may affect learning, and how active learning from examples may be promoted.