Basically there have been two arguments as to the relationship between PPPs and NPM. One is that PPPs have been an extension of the NPM agenda, which was itself based deeply on notions of marketization and efficient private sector delivery methods. Under this view, PPPs are seen as privatization in disguise – a way to institutionalize the NPM agenda through the backdoor if you like. The other argument is that PPPs are a whole new phenomenon. Following this line, PPP itself represents a key part of the post-NPM New Public Governance agenda, which seeks networks instead of single organizations, and encourages cooperation instead of competition.