The quest for resource security has become increasingly important for many countries over the last decade, and China is no exception. China’s unprecedented growth over the last 30 years has created several domestic challenges, one of which is the country’s increasing resource needs. With the world’s largest population and one of the fastest growing economies in the world, China’s inability to meet domestic demand is a concern both for the ruling regime of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and for others who see the rise of China as a threat to their own resource security. China’s surge in consumption has contributed to a global commodities boom, primarily in energy and minerals, and has placed an upward pressure on prices in recent years. Although China’s pursuit of the more controversial energy resources can be traced back to the mid-1990s when it became a net oil importer, its more recent efforts to diversify energy sources are creating a stir in the global community. In particular China has fostered relationships with “rogue” countries such as Iran, Sudan and Venezuela in an effort to capitalize on resource markets that are deemed less attractive to Western powers based on the domestic political situations of those countries. These relationships have helped increase China’s international influence both economically and diplomatically, but are not without costs. However, to understand China’s efforts to strengthen ties with these countries one must consider China’s own domestic and foreign policy goals, which are built on continuing economic growth, maintaining stability and respecting state sovereignty.