For a long time, the world of scientific research and that of its popularization were, to all appearances, parallel and autonomous universes. In order to ‘shift’ concepts and data from one universe to the other, it was thought necessary to ‘translate’ or ‘adapt’ them to the requirements and abilities of their different audiences, just as with their publishing outlets. That the reader might play a role in the dynamics of the production of knowledge – either of research or popularization – was naturally rejected. on the contrary, the ‘strong impression’ popular science would have on its public was taken for granted, even though opinions on how this actually occurred sometimes radically diverged. remarkable examples of roughly contemporary yet conflicting declarations are to be found in the words of two nobel prize-winners, albert Einstein and Czeslav Milosz.