This chapter explains the Korean Peninsula Energy Development Organization (KEDO), established in 1996, was the last of the confidence building measures initiated under the 1994 United States (US) - North Korea Agreed Framework. The framework's several confidence building measures, beginning with the spent fuel canning project in January 1995, demonstrated that Americans and North Koreans could work together and accomplish tasks of mutual benefit. Japan's colonization of Korea, complicated the "Korea problem". Suppression of Korean nationalist movements split Korea's political leadership into factions that eventually aligned themselves with rival superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union. The Agreed Framework and KEDO collapsed because of a lack of trust between Washington, Seoul and Pyongyang. The accord and KEDO had successfully built trust between 1994 and 2000, but the politicians in each capital had contributed to the erosion of that trust.