While cities such as Toronto, Canada and Sydney, Australia have had a relatively recent history of ethnic diversity arising from post-World World Two immigration, the contrast with Beijing’s long history dealing with ethnic minorities makes it a compelling comparison. This begs the question whether the contrasting histories can explain the differences in the development and behavioural patterns of their ethnic enclaves and economies, in the management of ethnic differences, and among on-the-ground ethnic group interactions? This chapter will examine the historical development of ethnic minority populations in Beijing, with a focus on ethnic minority identification, settlement and location patterns, and contemporary ethnic group interactions and representation.