In 1939, with support of liberal anti-Communists within the union and the American Federation of Labor (AFL), Counts launched a successful effort to unseat Davis from the presidency. Frequently, they were joined by educators themselves, including administrators with vast powers over student activities and progressive teachers fearful that their union policies were being dictated by the Communist Party. Government efforts to control the schools and their teachers included prescribed loyalty oaths, investigations into subversion, and attacks on textbooks. Sporadically throughout the 1930s, these attacks were effective in silencing and removing politically heterodox students, teachers and speakers. Building on and responding to these external pressures were governmental efforts, including investigations into teachers and textbooks at local, state, and federal levels, as well as the passage of loyalty oath requirements.