In addition to ending the long reign of the Byzantine Empire, the fall of Constantinople in 1453 silenced a long and vibrant intellectual tradition in the Orthodox Christian East, whose last notable theologian was Gregory Palamas (ca. 1296-1359). It took nearly 400 years before a revival occurred in Russia, which is discernible in part with the establishment of the intellectual academies of the Russian Orthodox Church at St Petersburg (1809), Moscow (1814), Kiev (1819), and Kazan (1842). After the fall of the Ottoman Empire, theological faculties were established in traditional Orthodox cities, including Athens (1837), Iaşi (1860), Czernowitz (1875), Bucharest (1884), Belgrade (1920), Sofia (1923), and Thessalonica (1942).