In the past, Indigenous responses to a variety of evangelizing and conversion attempts have led to a complex set of conditions and differences between and among communities. Some Catholics and scholars have attributed the differences to the variety and number of Indigenous communities with their own belief systems and practices. Still others attribute it to the weather and climate (since in warmer climes it was easier for Church officials to “maintain oversight and supervision”); to the amount of destruction and death due to disease; to the length and degree of contact (as with tribal communities who first met the newcomers); to the number of Indigenous people who actively support and evangelize for the Church; to political policies and legal practices.1 Yet these ideas concern past evangelizing processes. The purpose of this chapter is to look more recently at social, political, and visual contexts in a number of areas as particularly relevant for an examination and discussion of Catholic missionary and Indigenous relations over the past fifty years. Although some of the topics have been discussed in greater depth elsewhere, this chapter is designed to provide an overview of the discussions from an interdisciplinary perspective. It situates the discussion within social and historical movements by examining the topics through visual studies research to provide a grounding for the chapters, as well as a basis for investigating ideas and perspectives.