This chapter focuses on Indigenous education, is the way schooling in Australia and Melanesia is caught up in the system of stratification at local and national levels. It responds to contemporary policy and practice in Indigenous education. The chapter recommends to all educators and community developers, in Australia, Melanesia and elsewhere that they incorporate elements of Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy into their organization of learning, classroom practice and project development. The chapter explains crucial contemporary issues of reconciliation between Indigenous and other Australians and the lack of a sense of national identity and citizenship of people from the various provinces and social strata in Papua New Guinea. It suggests some strategies for educators and community developers dealing with these social dilemmas. Much of what is found in the chapter has wider application in contemporary educational theory, policy and practice, especially engagement.