One of the main goals of urban renewal policy in the Netherlands is to contribute to

the sustainability of the urban environment in physical, societal and economic terms.

The need for a more integrated approach to urban development policy emerged at

the end of the 1990s. This followed a series of urban developments that had failed

to produce satisfactory social outcomes, despite the improvements that had been

made to the quality of the physical living environment (TK 1997). The resulting

urban renewal policy framework incorporates several policy fields at various levels

of government, and relies upon concerted action by a variety of actors. The main

focus for implementation of urban policy is however at the local level: municipal

authorities must comply with urban renewal requirements in co-operation with the

national government, and also the provincial authorities and local actors.