At the outset we have to state that this chapter applies a normative approach combined with Weberian objectivity, as we attempt to refer factually to a highly charged theme: namely the ongoing process of politicisation of Islam that has resulted in the emergence of Islamism. However, this chapter does not claim to provide an analysis of this dynamic process itself. Our focus is on the implications of that process for the freedom of speech. We mention only in passing that one of the two authors provided a comprehensive analysis of the broad spectrum of political Islam published in a book-trilogy between 1998 and 2012 and based on 30 years of research.1 ese ndings shall not be rehashed here. Suce it to point out that Islam in our understanding is a religious faith, while Islamism is a political religion or respectively a political ideology dierentiated along two poles: institutional Islamists who try to implement their political ideas through the channels of institutionalised politics; and jihadist individuals and movements who legitimate the use of violence in the pursuit of their goals with religious slogans. e unfolding of our argumentation commences with a reference to the just rebellion against authoritarian regimes in the region of the Middle East and North Africa starting in early 2011. ese events have opened up space for Islamist movements. We do not dispute that they have every right to be engaged with and included in post-authoritarian political systems. However, to forego

violence is not enough to become democratic. We emphasise that our normative orientation is committed to the political culture of democracy and open society. In our approach of distinguishing Islam from Islamism we align ourselves with one particular orientation of Islamic-shaped political ideas: that determined by the ‘enlightened Muslim thought’ which provides a bridge between Islamic thinking and the political culture of democracy.2 As we critically look at the electoral success of Islamist movements, we note that here is a political religion entering the public domain to aect and shape politics and society with formal democratic arguments, i.e. putting the rule of the majority into the foreground. Yet in other respects, as we shall argue, their commitment to democratic means is lacking.