Any outsider making a study of UK government initiatives to deal with fraud and corruption both against the public sector specifically and against the state generally, i.e. UK plc, might be forgiven for thinking that the UK government has taken considerable strides since the start of the new Millennium to tackle the major causes of fraud and corruption. Unfortunately, however wellintentioned the steps taken may have been, from the perspective of those of us who specialise in fraud prevention, detection and investigation the UK government has taken as many steps backwards as forwards, as any scrutiny of what has taken place can demonstrate. Whatever the intention of successive governments, the practical reality is that there are now less specialist counterfraud investigators employed by the state and many of the mechanisms put in place for effective measurement, scrutiny and action have since either been merged and reduced, watered down or abolished.