The role of moderate Islamist parties throughout the Middle East and North Africa in the events spurred by the so-called ‘Arab Spring’ has received wide attention by researchers and the media. Reactions ranged from concerns over Islamist movements gaining momentum in the course of democratic transition to surprise on how little role the Islamists seemed to have played during the popular uprisings. In particular the focus has been on those countries where the ‘Arab Spring’ led to a regime change and where Islamist movements became the dominant political forces in the newly elected governments, such as in Tunisia and Egypt. Much less attention has been given to countries where the regimes – so far – remained stable despite popular protests and the fact that there, too, large Islamist movements and other societal groups demand reforms.