Inter-human conflicts that cost human lives and damage the environment are ongoing, even though at times they are largely invisible. Environmental destruction may (1) be an unintended consequence of conflict (i.e., ‘collateral damage’); (2) be the cause of conflict; or (3) stem from efforts to fund and finance interhuman conflict. Indeed, these latter two categories – natural resource conflicts and the use of environmental and natural resources to fund existing conflicts – are areas that are beginning to receive international attention from inter-governmental agencies and are becoming topics of inquiry in the criminological community.