This chapter addresses a topic of growing significance to green criminology – the harmful effects of mining on local communities and the environment (Long et al. 2012; Ruggiero and South 2013; Stretesky and Lynch 2011; White 2013a). While mining has long been recognised as an agent of environmental harm (White 2013a), less recognised is that its global expansion also has harmful effects on localised patterns of violence, work and community life in mining towns. Australia provides an excellent case study for exploring some of these mining impacts.