This chapter provides an overview of the evolution of social work in India to highlight the profession’s attempts to decolonize its substantive theoretical content and concomitant practice methods. An effort is made to differentiate the idea of decolonization from indigenization by focusing on the methods required to deal with Indian social problems embedded in their cultural contexts. It claims that indigenization goes beyond the mere adaptation of Western concepts and theories, and refers to the idea that social work theories and methods can be derived from the histories and cultures of non-Western Indian civilization.