In this opening chapter, we introduce the notion of decolonizing social work and outline the structure of the book and the chapters that follow. As we saw in the Preface, recognition of the rights of Indigenous Peoples worldwide reached a new level following the UN General Assembly’s adoption of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on 13 September 2007 (United Nations General Assembly, 2008). The Declaration is a major step toward recognizing the need to improve the situation of impoverished and marginalized Indigenous Peoples throughout the world and represents a strong political statement that acknowledges their rights to self-determination, to own and control their territories and resources, and to preserve their cultures. Most importantly, it affirms that ‘all doctrines, policies and practices based on or advocating superiority of Peoples or individuals on the basis of national origin or racial, religious, ethnic or cultural differences are racist, scientifically false, legally invalid, morally condemnable, and social unjust’ (United Nations General Assembly, 2008: 2).