This chapter examines the unique features of Indigenous populations. As shown in Chapter 4, cultural relevance is an issue of great importance for Indigenous and other minority groups, such as migrant populations who choose to use their own cultural approaches to social work in their host country (see also Gray, Coates and Yellow Bird, 2008; see also Chapter 6). Transnational identities have relevance in many first world countries where immigrants (including work migrants and refugees) with strong cultural and national identities might be excluded from their home country for economic or political reasons. In many countries migrant and Indigenous populations face similar issues of misrecognition. This leads to discrimination based on cultural stereotypes that create a dichotomous insider/ outsider divide. Most apposite then is the concept of culturally relevant Indigenous research, given the attention given to the historical trauma of Indigenous Peoples in the social work literature (Brave Heart, 2000; Campbell and Evans-Campbell, 2011; Evans-Campbell, 2008; Gray et al., 2008; see Chapter 7). Indigenous and migrant communities present important challenges for social work and ways have to be found to minimize the profession’s historic dependence on stereotypes by proactively seeking to better understand the historical and cultural roots of Indigenous and migrant populations, their belief systems and values, cultural traditions and practices, and assimilation and adaptation to the host or majority culture. The social work profession is challenged to develop theories, research methodologies and intervention strategies based upon knowledge of the unique histories and cultures of Indigenous and migrant populations, and their vulnerabilities, strengths and resilience. The profession has a responsibility to serve these populations guided by competencies based on culturally relevant research and evidence-based practice and policies.