This chapter presents and discusses the localization of social work knowledge and practice in Jordan and argues for its authentication to shape the future of social work in the Middle East. First it explores the history of colonization in Jordan and its consequent impact on the country’s social and political systems. The development of professional social work, including education and training, is then described within the contemporary environment by considering, for example, the cultural and religious context of everyday life and social interactions, family structure, the impact of instability in the Middle East, immigration, economic challenges and increasing societal awareness of social problems. Finally, using hospital social work, Bedouin health programs, residential care leavers, care of older people and Iraqi refugees as examples, the development of culturally relevant social work practice is explored and discussed.