In the South Pacific region, opportunities for economic growth tend to be limited, reflecting the small size of the domestic markets and high transport costs to external markets (Kissling 2002, Taumoepeau 2010a, see also Chapter 3 in this volume). The South Pacific countries are many and diverse, but all have in common the close proximity of the sea, small and fragmented land areas, and the vast distances which have to be spanned to maintain contact within any of their island groups, let alone between national island groups or with the rest of the world.