The text at hand poses a question as to what changes have been wrought under the tenures of chavismo in Venezuela, MAS in Bolivia, and the Revolución Ciudadana in Ecuador in terms of the distribution and redistribution of the surplus in an attempt to revert the effects of (neo)liberal reforms. A bibliographical overview will provide an answer in the form of two hypotheses: that there have been no significant transformations in the distributive arena, but some in the redistributive sphere; and that these changes go beyond the expansion and consolidation of the conditional cash transfers so dear to (neo)liberalism, as they imply an expansion of basic citizenship, including historically marginalized subaltern sectors as citizens.