This chapter examines the potential role of an open access genetic resource commons for the protection of farmers and livestock keepers' rights and achievement of food security. It outlines the importance of agro biodiversity to food security, as well as some of the threats posed by IP regimes and concentration of the seed and breed sectors for local and global food security. The chapter then explores a range of legal measures that have been proposed and/ or adopted to protect indigenous and local community rights over their genetic resources and traditional knowledge, and the extent to which such measures help secure holistic protection of their resource and knowledge rights. It concludes by arguing that open access licensing regimes have an important role to play in securing a protected genetic commons and, thus, aiding the recovery of seed and breed sovereignty of local farmers and livestock keepers.