Recent rapid advances in Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing technology and other technology developments have created a revolution in biology that will impact significantly on food production and the underlying crop and animal breeding. These developments will facilitate accelerated exchange of genetic materials and data but will require a streamlined Intellectual Property (IP) environment if we are to realize the improved food security and biodiversity conservation that this technology promises. Technical developments in genetic technology such as advances in DNA sequencing, chemical synthesis of DNA and DNA transfer between organisms, are providing new tools that could be used to address some of these challenges. Biologists classify organisms using the system of binomial nomenclature. However taxonomists often reclassify organisms based upon new discoveries or further research. Plant Breeders' Rights (PBR) has provided a useful IP protection for plants with commercial value in many countries. The level of protection varies and further harmonization and expansion of this system would be helpful.