Maajid Nawaz grew up in the Southend, London, United Kingdom as a Muslim of Pakistani descent. Like many teenagers he rebelled against his parents and society. He found it difficult to ‘fit in’ with British culture, but also felt distant from his Pakistani heritage. Like many youths who do not connect with any particular groups, Nawaz found acceptance among radical Islamists. Often outcasts seek merely inclusion, even if the group they join is leading them to a destructive end. That was the pathway for Nawaz until his imprisonment in Egypt allowed for contemplation and an intellectual and spiritual transformation. This change resulted in his opposition to radicalism as a true solution to his problems and those of Islam in general.2 In addition to Nawaz, there are other examples of de-radicalization. Unfortunately, there are also countless stories of radicalization that do not turn for the better. This chapter examines the roots of radicalism, especially Islamism, and the distinctive differences among them. It focuses on Islamic State tactics for recruitment amid the general context of radicalization. This chapter will provide numerous examples within multiple sovereign states, as well as highlight counter operations in existence in multiple western states.