This chapter focuses on the evolution of the nuclear situation in the region and the China factor in this nuclear complex. It questions the popular perception of the China factor that has not only dominated the Indian nuclear policy discourse but also to a great extent academic enquiry into the issue. The chapter examines historical narratives to demonstrate the sequence and events and locate the China factor to find out whether it is central or was projected to be central to India's decision to acquire nuclear weapons. The emergence of the South Asian nuclear complex needs a radical re-examination, in particular a look at how it evolved and how China was referred to as a constant factor in South Asia's nuclear politics. The China threat was a construction based on other actions taken by China. China played her role during this period through helping Pakistan, which was desperate to procure nuclear weapons.