On May 11 and 13 1998 India tested a set of five nuclear devices at its test site at Pokhran in the western Indian state of Rajasthan. India has made substantial progress towards the acquisition of such capabilities. However, important lacunae still remain in its quest to acquire a robust nuclear deterrent against both Pakistan and the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). This analysis seeks to identify the progress that has been made, focus on the factors that continue to drive these programmes, discuss the limitations of India's extant nuclear weapons capabilities and identify future challenges that India is likely to face as it strives to fashion a nuclear force capable of safeguarding its strategic interests. The nuclear weapons programme continued and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government chose to conduct tests in May 1998.