This chapter explains the structural impediments of arms control between India and Pakistan. Three key reasons underscore the lack of interest in arms control in the region, these are India and Pakistan are at the formative phase of their nuclear force-building and a competitive arms build-up is still the dominant trend in their strategic relations; They are yet to build secure retaliatory capability; At this stage, it is unlikely that they undertake serious arms control commitments because of the fear that it may impede their force-building plans and, as a result, may harm the credibility of their nuclear capabilities. It illustrates the imperatives of nuclear arms control in South Asia. The chapter discusses various arms control measures that India and Pakistan have undertaken thus far and briefly evaluates their efficacy. It analyses the factors that constrain India and Pakistan from undertaking serious arms control initiatives. The chapter summarises the main arguments and briefly outlines a future research agenda.