Muhammad Mursi was the first leader of an Islamist movement ever to be elected as head of a state. Only one year later, on 3 July 2013, he was forcibly removed from power by the Egyptian military, supported by large parts of the secular and nationalist elites of the country. From the very beginning his reign was very fragile due to deep divisions in public opinion. Mursi could neither rely on a constitution that defined the rules for the resolution of political conflicts nor on an elected parliament.