Much of the urban development literature addresses failures in formulating and implementing strategy. This observation is especially true for cities that are considered to be in a state of “decline.” In the United States, a generation of literature during the 1960s and 1970s portrayed urban development as top-down and heavy handed (Gans 1962, Anderson 1964, Goodman 1971). Other case studies continued to see the results of redevelopment as disastrous for cities (Thomas 1997, Keating, Krumhoz, and Perry 1995).