The importance of urbanism 1 for the reproduction of dictatorship is commonly understated – especially in historical studies. Even architectural historians tend to confine themselves to looking at architecture and ignoring urbanism. My basic thesis is that urbanism plays a central role for dictators and it did so, especially, in Europe during the interwar period. It serves the legitimisation of power, the production of acceptance, the demonstration of strength, effectiveness and speed; urbanism structures the socio-political project of the dictatorial regime within as well as outside the country and binds old as well as new experts to the regime. 2