Growing up Catholic in England and Wales and in Scotland has meant being part of a religious community outside of the Established Church. As a consequence of Reformation history in England and Wales, the Established Church was the Church of England (Reformed and Episcopal) and in Scotland the Church of Scotland (Reformed and Presbyterian). Many social and educational consequences of this history survived through the twentieth century (HornsbySmith 1978, 1987, 1991, 1999).