ABSTRACT

264Humans have always utilised the Earth’s resources to sustain life. Whilst many have an idealised view of the past, the negative impacts of human development have long been evident resulting in consequences such as the loss of species, minerals and pollution. However, the advent of mass industrialisation in the 19th century exacerbated many of these damaging effects. The 20th century saw exponential population growth and continued rapid expansion of industry. Over this period the detrimental impact of human development on the environment became even more apparent. Concerns about pollution and resource scarcity in the 1960s and 1970s led to debates about the ‘environment’ becoming truly multidisciplinary encompassing, but not restricted to, politics, philosophy, law, geography, economics and the natural sciences.