This chapter critically explores historical and contemporary ‘drivers’ of curriculum in primary physical education. Drawing on theoretical perspectives developed in curriculum studies literature in education (Connelly & Connelly, 2013), education policy studies (Ball, Maguire, Braun & Hoskins, 2011; Ball, Maguire & Braun with Hoskins & Perryman, 2012), and physical education (Penney, 2013), the chapter explores developments in official curriculum policy, in the enacted curriculum, and in the spaces and networks that connect political and professional arenas. In doing so, the chapter aims to bring to the fore the complexity of curriculum processes ‘in’ and affecting primary physical education. At the same time, the intention is to provide concepts and frameworks that can help extend understanding of why, and how, official policy and curriculum practices are driven in particular directions. The chapter therefore examines the factors contributing to specific developments in primary physical education curriculum, as official policy and as curriculum practices, and considers how particular conditions enable some developments and preclude or inhibit others.