The Bangkok metropolis is situated in lower central Thailand—a region long known for its abundant water networks producing rich soil, favorable to the cultivation of fruit orchards and rice fields, as well as mangrove forests along the coastline and providing habitats for local fisheries. However, the region is subjected to regular flooding due to the monsoon climate and heavy annual rainstorms. Furthermore, the downstream valley area of the nation’s principal river, Chao Phraya, also faces rising seawater and inundation during the winter season causing alkaline soil and temporary shortages of fresh water. Although its natural condition is challenging for permanent inhabitants (human habitation), Bangkok has been a strategic area of the Thai state authority from the 16th century to modern times. Based on the control of water channels streaming down to the Gulf of Thailand, the strategic success of the early Bangkok settlement created a series of canal networks throughout the lower river valley region.