ABSTRACT

International migration is a major source of social and economic change in the twenty-first century. In 2013, there were an estimated 231.5 million cross-border migrants (UN DESA 2013). A high proportion of this movement takes place within the Pacific Basin, where the primary reason for migration is for employment, but may also be motivated by political unrest, violence, natural disasters, marriage, or family reunification. Labor migration often reflects the traditional pattern in which workers from less developed areas move to high-income countries. Elsewhere, however, labor migration occurs between developing countries. Moreover, while some countries act primarily as labor exporters (e.g., the Philippines), there is an increasing tendency for countries to both export and import labor (e.g., Malaysia).