The Middle East has been undergoing new crises since the powerful sociopolitical uprisings known as the Arab Spring took place in several countries in 2011. Some countries are experiencing a long-term collapse of their political and social structures out of internal conflicts and external interventions (Syria, Libya, Yemen, but also Iraq since the US-led invasion of 2003). After a short-lived transition period and the election of a president from the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammad Morsi, Egypt has returned to the iron fist of a military-led regime since 2013, under the presidency of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. Tunisia has up to now been successful, albeit with many difficulties, in moving towards a genuine political transition, but it remains the sole example of its kind in the region. As more and more regional and international state and non-state actors are getting involved, the protracted Syrian conflict has led to a sizeable reconfiguration of the regional geopolitical scene. In addition, the extremist armed group of the so-called Islamic State has gained strength since 2013, managing to secure a transnational territorial base across the Iraqi-Syrian border. In 2016, roughly five million Syrians have sought shelter in neighbouring countries (mainly in Lebanon, Turkey and Jordan), resulting in a deep impact on the social, economic and territorial fabrics of already fragile countries. This situation created a new impetus for international scrutiny, humanitarian action and even, a little bit more than ten years after the US-led invasion of Iraq, for external political and military interventions. These extremely important events, still unfolding at the time of writing, have undoubtedly opened a new phase in the history of the region.